Mushrooms are the fruiting frames of a fungus, just as apples are the fruiting bodies of an apple tree. Mushroom is a type of fungus whose Latin name is Agaricus Bisporus. Mushroom Cultivation in India is beneficial for Indian farmers. Mushrooms belonging to the genus Fungi are a nutritious vegetarian dish and a good source of high-quality protein (20-35% dry weight).
At present, 3 varieties of mushroom farmers cultivate it, white mushroom (Agaricus Bisporus), paddy-straw mushroom (Volvariella volvacea) and oyster mushroom (Pleurotus Sajor-cashew).
In the botanical world, mushrooms are ranked along with heterotrophs (lower plants). These heterotrophs are not capable of photosynthesis. In mushroom farming, waste materials consist of chicken manure, horse manure, straw, gypsum.
And farmers use wastewater (from your compost) to provide a high-satisfying substrate from which the mushrooms will grow. The ammonia is removed from the process air through an ammonia washer before being returned to nature. Even they use ammonia as a source of nitrogen in composting.
The fungus, also called mycelium, uses manure as a source of energy for its combustion, releasing energy used for growth. Mushrooms provide many vitamins and minerals, such as B-complex and iron, and are a good source of quality protein such as lysine. In addition, mushrooms are entirely free of fat (cholesterol) and are also rich in antioxidants.
Farming requires various tools, which play a pivotal role in the processing of agriculture. Tractors and implements are the main ones in cultivation; Hence, we suggest the Kubota tractor, which is better for extending efficiency in the field.
Different kinds of Mushroom Cultivation in India
There are three types of mushroom farmers cultivate in India: button mushroom, straw mushroom, and oyster mushroom. Paddy straw mushrooms can grow in temperatures ranging from 35⁰C to 40⁰C. Button mushrooms sometimes grow in winter.
Farmers grow oyster mushrooms in the northern plains. All the three mushrooms of commercial importance are growing with the help of similar technology. Farmers grow it on extravagant beds called compost beds.
Climate Information for Mushroom Cultivation
Farmers can grow mushrooms in temperatures ranging between 32 to 38 degrees Celsius. However, for mushroom cultivation, farmers require high humidity up to 90%.
For mushroom cultivation in India, farmers mostly practice in colder climatic regions. Mushrooms cannot develop in temperatures higher than 40 ℃ and lower than 30 ℃.
Material Required for Mushroom Cultivation
Farmers cultivate mushrooms on manure or paddy straw. They initially prepare manure in the field. To produce 1 kg of mushrooms, they require twice the amount of substrate or compost.
Land preparation for Mushroom Cultivation
Mushroom cultivation requires land for the construction of houses and shade structures. However, an average one-hectare area is sufficient for mushroom cultivation.
First, chop the straw into small pieces of size 10-20 cm length for compost preparation. Subsequently, straws’ spread in a thin layer in the field and water it thoroughly—mix fertilizers which are ammonium sulphate and urea gypsum at the rate of 20 kg.
You can prepare the compost piling up in a heap. You must turn the heaps every 4 days to allow the fermentation of the other layers to produce proper compost. Spray with a fungicide like Malathion @ 2ml per litre of water along with the pile closure.
Sowing Methods and Tips for Mushroom Farming
Mushrooms are propagated vegetatively with the help of spawn. Spawns are grains in which mycelium is growing. The process of sowing mushroom spawn is known as spawning. First, farmers fill each bag with 10 kg of manure. Then, they place the spawn in polythene bags or trays of 100-150 gauge thickness at a depth of 15-20 cm and 3-4 cm.
The manure is laid in a thin layer over the spawn. Farmers repeat the process three to four times. After spawning, they sprinkle water over the manure. In polythene bags, tie the bag’s mouth and make a hole in the polythene for aeration.
Then they tie these bags at a height and keep them in the darkroom with high humidity. Within 15 days, the mycelium gets packed into the polythene bag leading to the appearance of mushroom or fruiting bodies within 30-45 days.
Irrigation Requirement for Mushroom Cultivation
It is also necessary to water the manure regularly at 10 litres every 2-3 days during the compost preparation stage. After spawning, farmers regularly spray water on trays or polythene bags to retain moisture for better mushroom growth.
Seed Varieties for Mushroom Cultivation
The most cultivated varieties of mushroom in India are –
Mushrooms of Oyster – These mushrooms are also called Dhingri mushrooms. They produce fan-shaped fruit bodies that resemble oysters.
Mushrooms of Oyster: These are the most commonly cultivated weight mushrooms. They have button-shaped heads of cream-white colour.
Mushrooms of Shiitake: These mushrooms form an umbrella-shaped fruit body with black gills. We mostly use it for medicinal purposes.
In the process of farming, we should consider the equipment which is better in farming, so choose such a tractor which is effective in cultivation; So you can choose the Powertrac tractor as the best tractor in this way you can also choose the Mahindra tractor.
For more information regarding mushroom cultivation and other farming, stay tuned with us.